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You are reading project material titled: Construction Of A Mobile Refrigerator
Subsequently, the principles of influencing the operation of a cooling system, choice of materials, various methods used in the fabrication and recommendation for advancement were duely treated.
Therefore, as the cooling system composed of mechanical and electric all parts, a lot of effort were made to break and discuss the various stages and sequences of assembly. Stating a quite number of safety rules which must be adhered strictly to by and intended person or persons, who may embark on the project in future to achieve a positive result.
Finally, this write up also encompasses the maintenance of any cooling system irrespective of the size and make without limiting it to only mobile refrigerator, with due consideration that we are in the modern age of refrigeration due to the gradual destruction of the ozone layer, so that any person who seized the opportunity of reading through the report can maintain such equipment no matter the size and complexity with ease and save himself from being overheated by the sun.
Letter Of Transmittal
Release Of Page
List Of Symbol
Table Of Content
1.1 Development Of Refrigerator
1.2 Purpose Of Construction
1.3 Importance And Specification Of Project
1.4 Scope And Limitation
1.5 Statement Of The Problem
2.0 Literature Review
2.1 Refrigeration As Related To Thermodynamics Process
2.2 Reversed Heat Engine Cycle
2.3 Replacement Of The Expansion Engine By The Throttle Valve
2.4 Condition At The Compressor Inlet
2.5 Under-Cooling Of The Condensed Vapor
2.6 Definition Of The Key Terms
3.0 Detailed Information Needed For The Construction
3.1 Safety Consideration
3.2 Unit Description
3.3 Practical Refrigeration Cycle
3.4 Method Of Construction And Procedure
3.5 Fitting Of The Evaporator
3.6 Other Assembly
4.0 Design Calculation And Analysis
4.1 Heat Leakages Through The Boundary
4.2 The Product Load
4.3 Air Change Load
4.4 The Determination Of Standard Component Of Design
4.5 Determination Of Compressor Size
4.6 The Evaporator Size Capacity
4.7 The Condenser
4.8 The Size Of The Capillary Tube
4.9 Piston Displacement
5.1 Analysis And Material Cost Value
5.3 Recommendation For Usage Of Unit
5.5 Complaints, Causes And Remedies.
The role played by refrigeration to the raising of people’s standards of living cannot be over emphasized. Besides the encroachment made in refrigeration in the recent years as a result of group where engineers, Scientists, Technicians, Craftsmen etc. combine their creative abilities, skills and knowledge.
Again, science provides the foundations on which other new discovery like substances and material are built. These are applicable to refrigeration field by those the manufacture, design, maintain and install refrigeration equipment. Through subsequent planned research, development and practical applications of refrigerator theories and principles. The research become useful in the sense that today, a cooling and freezing equipment of any size can be obtained.
Refrigeration principle has no limitations in application. The most conversant use and one that is common and widely known as the perversion of foods, meanwhile virtually, all products at homes, farm, business, industry, laboratories etc are in some ways affected by refrigeration. In fact, commodities like refrigerator are neither less important nor regardless in the modern society.
1.1 DEVELOPMENT OF REFRIGERATION
Modern refrigeration has many application the first and probably the most important, is the preservation of food.
Most foods kept at room temperature spoil rapidly. This is due to rapid growth of bacterial. At usual refrigeration temperature of about 4.4o c (40oF), bacteria grow quite slowly. Refrigeration food at this temperature will remain much longer.
Other important use of refrigeration includes air-conditioning, beverage cooling and humidity control. Many manufacturing processes also uses refrigeration.
The refrigeration industry became important commercially during the 18th century. Early refrigeration was obtained by the use of ice. Ice from lakes and ponds were cut and stored in the winter in insulated storerooms for summer’s use.
The use of natural required the building of insulated container or iceboxes for stores, restaurants and homes.
These units first appeared on a large scale during the 19th century.
Ice was first made artificially about 1820 an experiment. Not until 1834 did artificial ice manufacturing become practiced. Jacob Perkins, an American engineer, invented the apparatus, which was the forerunner of our modern compression systems. In 1855, a German engineer produced the first absorption type refrigerating mechanism, although Michael faraday had discovered the principles for it 1824.
Little artificial ice was produced until shortly after 1890. During 1890,a short writer resulted in shortage of natural ice. This helped start the mechanical ice-making industry.
Mechanical domestic refrigeration first appeared about 1910. J.M Larson produced a manually operated household machine in 1913. By Kelvnator produced the first automatic refrigerator for the American market. They sold 67 machines that year and between 1919 and 1920, 200 more. Now, over 10 million units are sold each year.
General Electric introduced the first of the sealed or “hermetic” automatic refrigerator units in 1928. It was named the monitor Top.
Beginning with 1920, domestic refrigeration becomes one of our important industries. The electrolux, which was an automatic domestic absorption unit, appeared in 1927. Automatic refrigeration unit for comfort cooling part of our conditioning appeared in 1927.
Fast freezing to preserve food for extended periods was developed about 1923. This marked the beginning of the modern frozen foods industry.
Mechanical refrigeration systems were first connected to heating plants provide summer cooling the late 1920’s.
By 1940, practically all-domestic units were of the hermetic type. Commercial units had also been successfully made and used. These units were capable of refrigerating large commercial food storage systems, comfort cooling of large auditoriums, and producing of low temperatures used in many commercial separations.
1.2 PURPOSE OF CONSTRUCTION
The aim and purpose of which this project is designed is to achieve the followings:
i. To design and fabricate a portable lightweight cooling and freezing equipment.
ii. To construct a movable cooling or freezing equipment, which can easily be transferred from one corner of the apartment to the other.
iii. To construct a mobile refrigerator with good performance and high percentage of local technology.
iv. To design and fabricate cooling and freezing equipment that will be mobile, economical and cost effective.
v. To design and construct a cooling or freezing equipment that is efficient and with little or no complication in maintenance.
vi. To design and fabricate a domestic cooling and freezing equipment that would improve on existing design when taking into consideration.
1.3 IMPORTANCE AND SPECIFICATION OF THE PROJECT
The importance attached to this design accomplishment of a fast cooling and freezing system without adverse effect on the food tissue, flavours, fleshiness, and natural nutrients of the food materials. The design intentions are based on reduced cost, longer life spans, fast freezing and cooling techniques, compactness, probability, easy of mobility and more of improving on the existing design taking into consideration the Nigeria factor and possibility of expending and marketability.
The specifications were obtained considering the items, which are to be cooled or preserved. Also the dimensions of the framework and the covering sheets were also considered immensely.
The component parts for the design of the middle cooling system includes:
1. The Compressors or the Engine
2. The Condenser
3. The Capillary tube
4. The Evaporator
7. Drier Strainer or Drier
9. Lubricating Oil
10. Rubber seal
11. Fibre of lagging material
12. Mild steel-square pipe
13. Metal sheets of mild steel / galvanized – sheet
17. Coal Materials
18. Plastic guilders
19. Metal screw nails
1.4 SCOPE AND LIMITATION
Refrigeration consist of three main categories which include –
1. Domestic refrigeration
2. Industrial refrigeration
3. Commercial refrigeration
The design scope of the cooling and freezing systems or mobile refrigerator is mainly for commercial domestic reasons due to the movable nature and freezing capacity.
The limitations, is the specification in terms of the size, area and capacity that determines the limitation of the design of the machine. In an industrial situation or uses or purpose where bigger refrigeration units are needed or required, the specification of this equipment may not be ideal (i.e. it might not be suitable).
1.5 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The most common uses of this mechanized refrigeration are the preservation of perishable goods more especially food staffs, cooling of drinks etc. In serving both functions and considering the area and situations of need such as resort centres, ceremonial places etc. hence the need arises more than ever to design mobile cooling and freezing system of acceptable standard that will meet certain essential requirements such as cost effectiveness and portability.